The common name of species within genus Ambystoma californiense) can be distinguished by their distinct pattern of black spots/bars. Northwestern salamanders (Ambystoma gracile) can be distinguished based on their distinct paranoid glands and glandular ridge on their tails. Long-toed salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum) have multiple subspecies that can be distinguished by their long toes and either an apparent dorsal stripe or a series of blotches (Stebbins & McGinnis, 2018). (Stebbins and McGinnis, 2018)is the mole salamander. There are approximately 33 species within this salamander genus. Individuals vary in color and pattern, as some can be brightly colored while others are duller in appearance. Coloration can also be heavily dependent upon age and location. Western tiger salamanders (
Mole salamanders have a wide geographical range, though they are all found in the Nearctic region. They range from Alaska to the Gulf Coast, as well as parts of the Mexican Plateau. Four species of A. californiese) can only be found in California, along with some hybrid populations. Western tiger salamanders (Ambystoma mavortium) have a broader range in western North America, Canada, and Mexico. There are some exceptions, including most of the Great Basin as well as the Pacific Coast, Mojave deserts, and Coloradan deserts. Northwestern salamanders (A. gracile) range from California to Canada. Long-toed salamanders (A. macrodactylum) are found more inland than the other salamander species, such as in Santa Cruz, California, and Canada (Stebbins & McGinnis, 2018). Streamside salamanders (Ambystoma barbouri) are found within a restricted range in Kentucky (Drayer et al., 2020). (Drayer, et al., 2020; Stebbins and McGinnis, 2018)are found in the west. California tiger salamanders (
A. mavortium can be found in water ponds, reservoirs, lakes, and temporary rain pools in deserts, mountains, and forests. A. californiese can be found within grasslands, oak savannas, low-elevation forests, and temporary ponds for breeding. A. gracile can be found in open grasslands, woodlands, and in forests near water. A. macrodactylum can be found in sagebrush and cheatgrass as well as meadows and rocky shores (Stebbins & McGinnis, 2018). (Stebbins and McGinnis, 2018)species have a diverse habitat range.
Caudata ("Catalogue of Life", 2022; Stebbins & McGinnis, 2018). DNA evaluations indicate that has been around for 2.4-5 million years (Spolsky et al., 1992; Bi et al., 2008). (Bi, et al., 2008; "Catalogue of Life", 2022; Spolsky, et al., 1992; Stebbins and McGinnis, 2018)salamanders are closely related to other salamander species within order
Some species within (Stebbins and McGinnis, 2018)are pseudomorphic, meaning that they have larval characteristics that do not change. The larvae can withstand cold temperatures, although some become neotenic over the course of the winter (Stebbins & McGinnis, 2018).
Mole salamanders do not exhibit any parental care for their young; the females will leave after laying their eggs (Stebbins & McGinnis, 2018; Gopurenko et al., 2007). (Gopurenko, et al., 2007; Stebbins and McGinnis, 2018)
While there are some heterospecific and homospecific calling cues in this genus, at early stages of the salamanders' life cycles, they are not able to identify or distinguish the calling cues (Gardner et al., 2020). Thus, juveniles' perception is mainly through their olfactory senses (Park et al., 2003). (Gardner, et al., 2020; Park, et al., 2003)
A. tigrinum have been seen to prey on Lithobates sylvaticus tadpoles (Wilbur, 1972). Some A. mavortium individuals exhibit cannibalistic behaviors, resulting in a different physical form with wide, U-shaped mouths and enlarged teeth (Stebbins & McGinnis, 2018). (Stebbins and McGinnis, 2018; Wilbur, 1972)species feed on small invertebrates.
There are no known adverse effects ofon humans.
The fossil history of this genus has revealed that tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) are comprised of more than 22,000 elements throughout their lifetimes (Sertich et al., 2014). (Sertich, et al., 2014)
Megan Roo (author), Colorado State University, Sydney Collins (editor), Colorado State University.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
uses sound to communicate
having coloration that serves a protective function for the animal, usually used to refer to animals with colors that warn predators of their toxicity. For example: animals with bright red or yellow coloration are often toxic or distasteful.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
the nearshore aquatic habitats near a coast, or shoreline.
having markings, coloration, shapes, or other features that cause an animal to be camouflaged in its natural environment; being difficult to see or otherwise detect.
in deserts low (less than 30 cm per year) and unpredictable rainfall results in landscapes dominated by plants and animals adapted to aridity. Vegetation is typically sparse, though spectacular blooms may occur following rain. Deserts can be cold or warm and daily temperates typically fluctuate. In dune areas vegetation is also sparse and conditions are dry. This is because sand does not hold water well so little is available to plants. In dunes near seas and oceans this is compounded by the influence of salt in the air and soil. Salt limits the ability of plants to take up water through their roots.
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
union of egg and spermatozoan
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
An animal that eats mainly insects or spiders.
fertilization takes place within the female's body
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.
eats mollusks, members of Phylum Mollusca
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
This terrestrial biome includes summits of high mountains, either without vegetation or covered by low, tundra-like vegetation.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
active during the night
the business of buying and selling animals for people to keep in their homes as pets.
having more than one female as a mate at one time
"many forms." A species is polymorphic if its individuals can be divided into two or more easily recognized groups, based on structure, color, or other similar characteristics. The term only applies when the distinct groups can be found in the same area; graded or clinal variation throughout the range of a species (e.g. a north-to-south decrease in size) is not polymorphism. Polymorphic characteristics may be inherited because the differences have a genetic basis, or they may be the result of environmental influences. We do not consider sexual differences (i.e. sexual dimorphism), seasonal changes (e.g. change in fur color), or age-related changes to be polymorphic. Polymorphism in a local population can be an adaptation to prevent density-dependent predation, where predators preferentially prey on the most common morph.
scrub forests develop in areas that experience dry seasons.
breeding is confined to a particular season
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
mature spermatozoa are stored by females following copulation. Male sperm storage also occurs, as sperm are retained in the male epididymes (in mammals) for a period that can, in some cases, extend over several weeks or more, but here we use the term to refer only to sperm storage by females.
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
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